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    24-Jul-2014
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MERIS Top Of Atmosphere Vegetation Index (TOAVI) (step 2.2)
Water Processing
MERIS Ocean Colour Processing (step 2.9)
Clear water atmospheric corrections (step 2.6.9)
Turbid water screening and corrections (steps 2.6.8, 2.6.10)
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Cloud Processing
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Water vapour retrieval over land surfaces (step 2.3.1)
MERIS Pixel Identification
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4.2.6 Ocean Colour Glossary

Table 4.7 - Ocean Colour Glossary.

attenuation

A term that describes the loss of electromagnetic energy (solar radiation) as it passes through the atmosphere owing to absorption and scattering by atmospheric particles and molecules.

biogenous

Biogenous sediment is derived from living organisms, normally plankton organisms, that have shells which are resistant to dissolution or destruction. The most common shell materials for plankton are calcite (CaCO3 or calcium carbonate) and opal (SiO2 or silica).

bloom

A population burst of phytoplankton that remains within a defined part of the water column.

case 1 waters

Those oceanic or coastal waters where the ocean colour is determined by algal pigments.

case 2 waters

All oceanic or coastal waters which are not case I waters.

chlorophyll

Pigments found in plant cells that are active in harnessing energy during photosynthesis.

coccolith

A small round body found in chalk formations.

detritus

Particulate material that enters into a marine or aquatic system.

diatom

A major phytoplankton group characterised by cells enclosed in silicon frustules, or shells.

euphotic zone

In the ocean, the sunlit layer consisting of the upper 100 m or so in which most of the primary productivity takes place. The depth varies geographically and seasonally and can range from a few metres in turbid waters near the shore to 120 m in the Sargasso Sea. It is a zone with sharp gradients in illumination, temperature and salinity, and is the upper of three vertical zones that comprise the pelagic part of the ocean, the other two being the middle mesopelagic and the lower bathypelagic zones. It is also known as the photic zone.

eutrophic waters

Water bodies or habitats having high concentrations of nutrients.

fluorescence

The re-emission of light energy at a lower frequency by an absorber illuminated with optical energy. The response is usually immediate and on order 1 to 3% of the incident intensity.

Gelbstoff

Dissolved material in sea water that is resistant to bacterial attack. Its name comes from the yellow colour it imparts to the water. Brown algae, the principal algae group growing in coastal waters of temperature and higher latitudes, excrete phenolic compounds. These polyphenols are converted into a brown polymer by secondary reactions with carbohydrates and proteins of algal origin. The properties of the resulting substance are identical with Gelbstoff. Its concentration in sea water is around 1 mg/l and it is removed mainly by precipitation since its phenolic nature renders it resistant to bacterial attack. This is also known as yellow substance or gilvin.

gilvin

See Gelbstoff.

halocline

A layer in water where the salinity changes rapidly.

heterotrophic

Refers to the ability of an organism to manufacture its own food. It must obtain it from other organisms, living or dead, and it is said to depend on external nourishment.

mesotrophic waters

A state of a water body within a soil which is intermediate in character between an eutrophic and an oligotrophic state, as far as its nutrients are concerned.

mixed layer

In oceanography, a nearly isothermal surface layer of around 40 to 150 m depth caused by wind stirring and convection.

oligotrophic waters

Refers to water bodies or habitats with low concentrations of nutrients.

packaging effect

The optical properties of a water sample varies if suspended particles gather in groups (are "packed") or divide (cell growth).

particulate organic matter

The suspended particle load that controls the chemistry of the oceans. The physical and chemical properties of the particles control how rapidly a chemical species is removed from solution and incorporated in sediment.

photosynthesis

The process in plants by which carbon dioxide is converted into organic compounds using the energy of light absorbed by chlorophyll, which in all plants except some bacteria involves the production of oxygen from water.

phytoplankton

One of two groups into which plankton are divided, the other being zooplankton. Phytoplankton comprise all the freely floating photosynthetic forms in the oceans, i.e., they are free-floating microscopic plants which, having little mobility, are distributed by ocean currents.

pigment

A substance giving colour to animal or vegetable tissues.

radiance

The radiation energy per unit time coming from a specific direction and passing through a unit area perpendicular to the direction.

reflectance

In radiation transfer, the fraction of incoming radiation that is reflected from a medium. The sum of this, the transmittance, and the absorption must equal unity.

Secchi Disc

A white target lowered from a vessel and viewed from above the surface in full solar illumination to estimate the attenuation in the water column.

thermocline

Depth zone within which temperature gradient is at a maximum.

total suspended matter

Particulates ranging in size from less than 0.1 micrometre to 50 micrometres are called Total Suspended Particulates (TSP).

turbidity

The weight of particulate matter per unit volume of sea water.

upwelling

The movement of nutrient-rich water from a specified depth to the surface.

whitecaps

The air/water emulsion occurring at the top of ocean surface waves under high winds.

yellow substance

See Gelbstoff .

zooplankton

Animal members of the plankton family.


Keywords: ESA European Space Agency - Agence spatiale europeenne, observation de la terre, earth observation, satellite remote sensing, teledetection, geophysique, altimetrie, radar, chimique atmospherique, geophysics, altimetry, radar, atmospheric chemistry